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Neonatal nutrition requirements
daily nutrition in neonates:
1, protein: term infants about 2~3 grams per kilogram of body weight per day.
2, fats: total requirements for 9~17 g/100 kcal a day heat. Unsaturated fatty acids in breast milk, 51% 75% of which can be absorbed, just 34% of unsaturated fatty acid in milk. Linolenic acid and arachidonic acid are essential fatty acids, linolenic fatty acid deficiency appear rash and growth retardation, arachidonic acid into prostaglandin.
3, amino acids: all 9 essential amino acids: lysine, arginine, Leucine, isoleucine, and Jie ammonia acid benzene, methyl-methionine, alanine, threonine, and tryptophan. Newborns must be adequate intake of this 9 amino acids every day
4, heat: first week of term infants after birth, about need 250~335 kJ per kg of body weight per day; second week after birth, about need 335~420 kJ per kg of body weight per day; more than three weeks after birth and, about need 420~500 kJ per kg of body weight per day.
5, sugar: term infants day sugars 17~34 g/100 kcal of heat. Sugar is found in breast milk lactose, the sugar in milk, lactose, accounted for about half.
6, minerals, trace elements and macro elements.
sodium salt: salt is sodium chloride, sodium provides essential. Mother breast-feeding period should not be too salty to eat, but not sodium is not needed. Wet nurse in confinement does not salt the practice is wrong, newborns need salt.
and potassium: potassium in dairy products can meet the needs of newborns. Chloride: chloride with sodium and potassium absorption. Calcium and phosphorus: calcium in the breast, 50%~70% is in the neonatal intestinal absorption; milk calcium absorption rate is only 20%. Breastfeeding not calcium, milk-fed easy calcium deficiency. Phosphorus uptake better, not lacking.
-magnesium: magnesium deficiency affects calcium balance.
iron: iron content in breast milk and cow milk is not high, iron easily absorbed in milk, so milk-fed more likely to lack of iron.
zinc: zinc deficiency rarely in the neonatal period, generally do not need supplements. Hair zinc and zinc does not represent the blood. Therefore, do not to zinc zinc measured the blood, low blood zinc, zinc does not represent, and zinc shall prevail.
7, vitamins: health delivery of newborns, rarely lacking vitamins, so you do not need supplements. If the mother seriously inadequate vitamin intake during pregnancy, placental dysfunction and premature newborns may be deficient in vitamin d, c, e and folic acid.
vitamin k vitamin k deficiency, which can cause spontaneous hemorrhagic disease or late-onset neonatal V-K the lack of bleeding disorders. Especially exclusive breastfeeding, the probability of occurrence is relatively large. Therefore, routine after giving birth on neonatal injection of V-K1 1.0 mg, is play a preventive role. Intestinal bacteria in premature infants grow later, immature liver function, prone to lack V-K, a daily supplement of Vitamin K1 mg Supplement 3 times in a row.
vitamin d: birth when a certain amount of vitamin d, but not to accept enough outdoor Sun, without food intake, vitamin d deficiency can occur in infancy infant tetany and early childhood rickets. Should start with half a month after birth, vitamin d, 400 international units a day. Vitamin e
: premature infants need to supplement, 30 milligrams a day. Vitamin a overdose: shapely mother when vitamin d supplements, and some use Cod Liver Oil, vitamin AD agent. If the ratio is not appropriate, can produce vitamin a overdose or poisoning.